Scholars D.L. Macdonald and Kathleen Scherf argue that even Mary Shelley’s first edition of Frankenstein, published in 1818, was “heavily influenced by [her] husband” in terms of both style and ideas. Furthermore, the second edition, released in 1823, was prepared by Mary’s father William Godwin, “without any participation from the author.” Mary Shelley accepted most of Godwin’s minor edits when she herself revised the book for its 1831 third edition, and she also implemented large-scale changes that completely alter the message of the novel. Anne K. Mellor argues that in 1818, Shelley grants Victor the free will to abandon his pursuit of creating life at any point; whereas in 1831, “he is a pawn of forces beyond his knowledge or control.” For this reason, several scholars have concluded that the 1831 edition is “largely a different book from the 1818 edition.”
“A Note on the Text,” in Frankenstein: the 1818 text,edited by D.L. Macdonald and Kathleen Scherf (Ontario: Broadview Press, 1999).
“A Note on the Text,” in Frankenstein, edited with an introduction and notes by Maurice Hindle (New York: Penguin Books, 2003).
Mellor, Anne K. Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters (New York: Routledge, 1989), page 171.
Frontispiece of 1831 edition of Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley (From the holdings of Special Collections & University Archives, UCR Library, University of California, Riverside.)
The Eaton collection’s extensive archive contains 187 items that feature “Frankenstein” in the title. Though some of these are adaptations, over 50 of them claim to contain Mary Shelley’s original work. But what counts as “original work,” anyway? The Eaton has both a first edition 1818 text, pictured below, originally published in three volumes, and an original 1831 text (third edition), which is printed in a single book. Although scholars have long considered the 1831 text to be authoritative, since Mary Shelley edited it herself, this version also maintains over 100 small changes made by Mary Shelley’s father, William Godwin. What are these changes? Why do they matter? Come back next week for the newest FrankenBlog post!
This FrankenBlog, in true Franken-prefix fashion, brings together many stories — how Special Collections libraries come to know their objects and create exhibits, how creative works make their way into our cultural consciousness, and how people from all different backgrounds, living in all different places, come together to celebrate literature that sparks something special in its readers – something so special that a work can be as thought-provoking today as it was 200 years ago. Because there are hundreds of stories you can tell from as rich a collection of Frankenstein material as lives in the Eaton, we don’t know yet which one we’ll explore. Join us as we assemble the body and bring it to life!
In Fall 2018, the Eaton Collection will open its 200 Years of Frankenstein exhibit, which will showcase Mary Shelley’s original work, and also trace its legacy as other voices reimagined the story through new technologies and media forms. The exhibit will contain rare copies of both the first edition 1818 Frankenstein in three volumes, and the third edition, which Mary Shelley substantially revised and re-released in 1831. Our particular copies are especially interesting, as unique identifiers like Australian watermarks and nineteenth-century shorthand notes tell the tale not only of the story’s history, but of the journey of physical objects that have been read by many eyes and held by many hands, as the books have crossed continents and spanned centuries.
This blog is a year-and-a-half-long celebration of the 200th anniversary of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, originally published in 1818. Shelley’s novel is not only a foundational work of science fiction literature, but also an important cultural touchstone for many genres, including Romanticism, Gothic, horror, and more. As one of the world’s richest and deepest collections of science fiction, fantasy, horror, utopian literature and related genres, the Eaton Collection is a perfect home and context for such a complex and influential novel. Like its famous monster, Frankenstein is a book written in many forms, containing many parts, and combining many seemingly disparate elements – and in the end it tells one unforgettable story. The book has never been out of print since it was published, and has spawned innumerable other creative works and interpretations, including films and television shows, comics and graphic novels, two and three dimensional art, internet memes, and popular slang.
Welcome to the FrankenBlog. In 1816 Mary Shelley began writing Frankenstein, and in 1818 it was first published. This blog will commemorate some of the key dates in the writing of the work, talk about events to commemorate it, link to interesting Frankenstein bicentennial websites, and post Frankenstein images from the Eaton Collection of Science Fiction and Fantasy. All of this will build to our 2018 exhibit on 200 Years of Frankenstein!